|Is a parish comprised within Eskdale ward, Longtown petty sessional division;
deanery of Carlisle N,; union and rural district of Longtown; Brampton county
court district, and the county council electoral division of Longtown E. It is
bounded on the north-east by Kirklinton and Irthington, on the north-west by
Stanwix, and on the south-east by Irthington and Crosby-upon-Eden. Lengthwise
the parish extends about five miles, but its average breadth is little more than
one mile. It is divided into the townships of Scaleby East and Scaleby West,
whose united area is about 3,646 acres. The ratable value of the land is £2,661;
and of tbe buildings, £759; and population, 388. An extensive tract of meadow
land stretches along the south side of the parish, producing excellent crops of
hay and aftergrass. The arable lands of the centre consist for the most part of
a deep loamy soil, inclining to clay. A good deal of turf is cut in the north,
and carried to Carlisle and other places. The soil is here less fertile, but has
been much improved during late years by draining.
The manor of Scaleby is co-extensive with the parish, and was granted by Henry I to Richard the Rider, whose surname was de Tilliol, who represented the County in Parliament in the reign of Edward I, and had the King's license for converting his manor house at Scaleby into a castle. This ancient family, several of whom were summoned to Parliament, continued in possession of the manor until 1435, when Robert do Tilliol, the last heir male, died without issue, leaving two daughters his co-heiresses, the eldest of whom, Isabel, received the Scaleby domain, and carried it in marriage to John Colville. This family terminated in the third descent in two daughters, who both married into the Musgrave family. This estate went with the youngest, Margaret, to Nicholas Musgrave. His descendant, Sir Edward Musgrave, was a zealous Royalist, and maintained a regiment at his own expense in support of the Royal cause. But this display of his loyalty cost him several of his possessions, which he was obliged to alienate in order to meet the expenses incurred. Sir Edward garrisoned Scaleby Castle with his troops, but after firing one shot at the besieging party they capitulated, as the place was deemed too weak to hold out. Sir Edward was at the battle of Worcester, and supplied Prince Charles, afterwards Charles II, with his own horse, when the Royal charger was shot from under him. After the defeat he fled to Scotland, and found protection with the Duke of Gordon; but Cromwell finding out his retreat, sent a messenger to inform the Duke that "If he did not deliver up Ned Musgrave. that arch rebel, he would send a troop of horse, and storm the castle." Sir Edward then escaped to the Isle of Man, where he soon after died. Among the property which he was compelled to alienate was the manor of Scaleby, which was purchased by Richard Gilpin, and remained in the possession of that family until 1741, when it was sold to Edward Stephenson, Esq., who had been for some time governor of Bengal. la 1834, Rowland Stephenson, his descendant, assumed by Royal license the name of Standish; and the manor is now held by Capt. W.P. Standish, Marwell Hall, Winchester. The following also own estates in the parish:- R.H. Allison, Esq., M.P., Scaleby Hall; Dean and Chapter of Carlisle; Joseph Jefferson, Longpark; Messrs. Sutton, Woodhead; Rev. J. Hudson, Crosby house; C.B. Hodgson, Esq.; John Hind, The Nook. There are, besides the foregoing estates, several other freehold properties, some very small, but the owners, or lairds as they are called, owe neither suite nor service to the lord of Scaleby, as each one claims the manorial privileges of his own estate.
WEST SCALEBY.- The acreage, population, and ratable value of this township are included in the parish returns,
The village of Scaleby is about six miles N.N.E. of Carlisle. Both portions of the name betoken its Danish origin; Scale, in that language signifies a shealing or protection for cattle; Scaleby was therefore the by or town of cattle sheds, erected by the sea rovers after they had relinquished their former piratical mode of life and adopted the more peaceful one of cattle rearing.
The Church dedicated to All Saints, is of unknown foundation; nor has any record been met with to indicate the period of its erection, though the amazing strength of the tower is suggestive of the Edwardian era. The church underwent a thorough restoration in 1861, at a cost of nearly £1,000, and in 1863 a rectory house was built. The lecturn, which is a beautiful piece of workmanship, was the gift of the Rev. R.C. Macduff, in memory of his wife, and a stained-glass window commemorates the Scaleby Castle family. The bishop of Carlisle purchased the advowson from the Tilliols in 1292, by whom, probably the church was erected, since which time the right of presentation has been vested in the bishop. In the Ecclesiastical Survey, made in the 26th year of Henry VIII, the living of Scaleby was valued at £7 12s. 1d. It has since been augmented, and is now worth about £178, and is held by the Rev, George Thompson, who was inducted in 1896. The tithes were commuted for a rent-charge of £36, but now produce only £20. When Bishop Nicholson made his visitation of this church, in 1703, he found no font for the celebration of baptism, nor surplice for the officiating clergyman. Four years passed before the inhabitants were able to supply the want; and in 1707 the present font, bearing the date, was placed in the church. In the interior of the building are preserved the remains of a Roman Altar, with the following incomplete inscription:-
There are two other sepulchral slabs of very great antiquity in this church.
The Parochial School is a small building adjoining the church. It is endowed with the interest of £40, bequeathed by Mr. Joseph Jackson, in 1773, The school is a mixed one, in which about 45 children are taught.
The Parish Hall was erected in 1895, at the sole expense of R.A. Allison, Esq., M.P., in memory of his wife, on a site presented by Mr. John Hind. It is a handsome structure of red brick, with accommodation for about 200 people. The interior, which has at one end a stage, is bright, attractive, and comfortable and the roof tastefully decorated. The hall contains a library and reading room, the former established in 1898.
At Scaleby Hill, in this township, is a Wesleyan Chapel, erected in 1828, and opened on the 11th May of the same year. As early as the year 1773, several of the inhabitants, who had listened to the earnest and impressive discourses of John Wesley during his missionary tour through Cumberland, adopted his tenets, and formed themselves into a little society. Their meetings were held in private houses, and, like the first Neophytes of the Christian Church, they had to suffer much for conscience sake. Their little assemblies were surrounded by crowds of roughs, the windows were broken, and the small congregation pelted with rotten eggs, &c. In the above-mentioned year, chiefly through the exertions of the Messrs. Palmer, Ferguson, Hogg, Atkinson, and James, the little chapel was built upon land given by Mr. J. Palmer, senior.
Scaleby Castle is in this township. Here was born the Rev, William Gilpin, prebendary of Salisbury, who died in 1804, at the age of 80. He was the author of several interesting works, and is reckoned among the worthies of Cumberland. The castle is an ancient building, though considerably modernised by restorations during late years. It was crenellated by the Royal license in 1307, but very little of the original fabric now remains. The ponderous old doors beneath a network of iron are still left; and the moat, over which a draw-bridge gave entrance to the interior, may still be seen encircling the castle. Should an enemy succeed in crossing this outer moat, there was still an inner one, over which he must pass before he could reach the castle walls. This inner moat has long been filled up, with the exception of a small portion in front. The octagonal tower is a building of considerable strength, and against this portion, according to tradition, the soldiers of Cromwell directed their efforts, when besieging the castle. 'The damage done by General Lambert's force was repaired by Mr. Gilpin, and the building put into habitable condition. A stone bearing these initials R. & S.G., 1618 records this restoration. Richard and Sarah Gilpin, 1618. A large portion was rebuilt, and the rest beautified in 1853-55, by late Jas. Fawcett, Esq.
An extensive peat moss, containing upwards, of 200 acres, stretches through a portion of the township. This turbary was divided in 1852 under the Enclosure Act. Many persons find employment in cutting and preparing the turf or peat which is sent to Carlisle and more distant markets. At a depth of eight feet in this moss there was found a few years ago the skeleton of an ancient Briton. It was enclosed in the skin of some wild animal, and was carefully bound round with thongs of tanned leather. Within the grasp of the bony fingers was a stick, three feet long and twelve inches in circumference, from which circumstance it is conjectured that he must have perished accidentally on the spot.
EAST SCALEBY township contains about 1,593 acres; the ratable value and population are included in the returns for the parish. Scaleby Hall, built by the late Henry Farrar, Esq., and now the property and residence of Robert Andrew Allison, Esq., M.P., is within this division.
The following villages and hamlets are in the parish:- Barclose, 5½ miles N.E. by N.; Longpark, 4¾ miles N.N.E.; Stone Knowe, 5¼ miles N.N.E,; and Scaleby Hill, about 6½ miles N.N.E., all bearing from Carlisle. Moss Edge, whose name describes its situation, is a small hamlet occupied by turf-cutters.
Bulmer's History & Directory Of Cumberland, 1901
19 June 2015
© Steve Bulman