|This parish lies on the north side of the river Irthing, between the rivulets
Kingwater and Cambeck, and is bounded on the north by Kirklinton and Stapleton,
on the east by Lanercost, an the south by Brampton, and on the west by
Irthington. It has a township of its own name, whose estimated extent is 3,094:
acres, the assessment value of which is £3,472, and gross rental £3,860, The
population in 1891 numbered 335. Walton is comprised within Eskdale ward, and
petty sessional division; the county council electoral division of Hayton; and
the deanery, union, county court and rural districts of Brarnpton.
As there are neither mines nor manufactures in the parish, the inhabitants are entirely dependent upon the cultivation of the land. The Roman Wall passed through the district, and the visitor will experience little difficulty in tracing both it and the fosse in several places.
The manor of Walton formed a portion of the barony of Gilsland, and was given by Robert de Vallibus or Vaux, second baron, to the Abbey of Lanercost, which he had founded. It continued in the possession of the priory until the dissolution of that house; and in 1543 the manor of Walton, along with other domains of the late abbey, was granted to Thomas Dacre, Esq., afterwards Sir Thomas Dacre, Knight, an illegitimate son of Thomas, Lord Dacre of the North. It continued in the same family until 1789, when it was sold by William Dacre, Esq., to John Johnson, Esq., from whom it has descended to F.P. Johnson, Esq., J.P., of Castlesteads. The following are also extensive landowners:- Major-General Frederick Thomas Whinyates, Bournemouth; C.T. Calvert, the Rev. William Dacre, George Bell Routledge, Esq., J.P., and the Rev. John Robinson.
LOW WALTON. - The area and ratable value of this township are returned with the parish. The village of Walton is three miles north of Brampton, and ten miles from Carlisle. Like many of the other villages that lie along the route of Hadrian's barrier, its name is characteristic, and "bears testimony to its relationship with the Roman Wall, many of the stones of which may be detected in the cottages."
The Church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a handsome Gothic building, erected in 1869, at a cost of about £2,000. The whole cost, with the exception of £400 borrowed from the Board of Public Works, at 4 per cent, was raised by subscription. The church consists of chancel, nave, north aisle, tower surmounted by a spire, and porch. The chancel is the property of the lord of the manor, and beneath its floor is the last resting place of that family. A beautiful stained glass window of three lights was placed in the chancel at the time of its erection, as a memorial to the Johnson family. Another two-light window was inserted in 1872 to the memory of Captain Charles Elidor Whinyates, as a token of esteem by his brother officers. A handsome reredos, in memory of George John Johnson, Esq., J.P. who died December 23rd, 1896, was erected by his family in 1899. The living was formerly a vicarage, but was appropriated to Lanercost Priory under the gift of Robert de Vaux. Robert de Chester, the last vicar, was presented by the prior and convent of Lanercost in the year 1380. From this time till the dissolution, the church was served by the canons from that monastery. This benefice was included in the gift of the priory lands to Sir Thomas Dacre, and is now in the patronage of his descendant, the Rev. W. Dacre. In 1750, the living was certified as of the annual value of £13 10s., but in 1767 a grant was received from Queen Anne's Bounty, with which land was purchased, the rent of which has greatly augmented the income. The great tithes were commuted in 1843 for £186. and the small tithes for £30. In 1896, Mr. T. Robinson presented £100 to the living, £100 was received from the Church Extension Society, and £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty Board. These monies were invested with the last named Board. The net value of the benefice at the present time is £178; it is held by the Rev. John Robinson, L.Th. (Durham). The parish registers commence in 1684.
The school was erected in 1859, at a cost of £250, and is attended by an average of 44 children. The late Miss Elizabeth Johnson, of Carlisle, left £100 to this school; James Boustead, of Cumrenton, £60; and Mr. John Hetherington, of Nickies Hill, £30. The Primitive Methodist Chapel, situated in the village, was erected in 1858.
Castlesteads, the residence of G.J, Johnson, Esq., J.P., lord of the manor, is a beautiful mansion, situated on a gently sloping hank, amidst groves and plantations, and within its extensive grounds is the site of a Roman station, the Cambeck fort of Camden. The gardens of the house now cover the spot; but beyond the altars, sculptured stones, &c., which have from time to time been unearthed, there are few vestiges of the camp remaining. Mr. Warburton tells us that in his time the boundaries were easily traced, and appeared to be six chains square. The station is placed about 400 yards from the Roman Wall, and, in this respect, differs from all the others, which are attached to that structure. Probably the advantages of the position induced the Romans to depart from the rule followed in all the other cases. " The situation of the camp,' says Mr. Hutchinson, "is excellent, on the ridge of a hill, having a swift descent to the north and south, and commanding an extensive prospect northward along the wall, having in view the station at Watchcross westward, and Burdoswald to the east; and it was capable of being alarmed by any beacon from Car-Voran." This station is, by most modern writers, believed to be the Petriana of the Romans; but though a critical examination of the various remains of fortifications along the route of the wall, compared with the name and order of the stations as given in the "Notitia Imperii," and its agreement with the regular distance at which the forts were placed strongly support the supposition, yet not one single inscription occurs upon any of the numerous altars and monuments found upon the site in confirmation of it.
Bulmer's History & Directory Of Cumberland, 1901
19 June 2015
© Steve Bulman