Greystoke Parish

  > A fertile and picturesque district, extending about twelve miles in length from north to south, and ten in breadth from east to west, is bounded by the parishes of Dacre, Newton, Skelton, Castle Sowerby, Caldbeck, and Crosthwaite, and the lake of Ullswater and Barton, in Westmorland. The soil is generally a red light loam, but strong red clay prevails in some parts, and in other places there is a mixture of gravel, and limestone is found in all the townships. Grouse abound on the mountains and moorlands, and partridges, hares, &c. in the lower grounds, and the extensive parks of Greystoke and Gowbarrow abound with fallow and red deer, and here is also a herd of wild Argyle cattle, chiefly gold and silver duns. The fourteenth duke of Norfolk, who died in 1815, planted upon his extensive estates here, upwards of 600,000 trees, (the plantations made by him occupying nearly 2000 acres,) and greatly improved the enclosures, so that the parish now presents a succession of beautiful scenes, where wood and water, hill and dale, unite their charms in the most pleasing combination. This extensive parish contains the following thirteen townships and four chapelries, viz. Berrier and Murrah, Blencow (Little), Bowscale, Greystoke, Hutton John, Hutton Roof, Hutton Soil, Johnby, Matterdale, Motherby and Gill, Mungrisedale, Threlkeld, and Watermillock. Population in 1841, 2786.

The Barony of Greystoke comprises an area of 60,436 acres, comprehending the parishes of Greystoke, Dacre, and part of Crosthwaite, and the manors of Berrier and Murrah, Blencow, Castlerigg, (part of,) Dacre, Greenthwaite, Greystoke, Hutton Soil, Johnby, Matterdale, Motherby, Mungrisedale, Newbiggin, and Stainton, Threlkeld, Thwaite, and Watermillock. It is held of the king in capite, by the service of one entire barony, rendering 4 yearly, at the fairs of Carlisle, by suit at the county court, monthly, and serving the king in person, against Scotland. The customary tenants, in the greater part of the barony, pay foster corn, mill rents, peat silver, and boons, for mowing and leading peats, and a 20d. fine on the death of lord or tenant, and 30d. fine on alienation. The copyhold court, or as it is now called, the court baron and customary court, is held yearly at Michaelmas. The barony of Greystoke was given by Ranulph de Meschines, earl of Cumberland, to one Lyulph, whose posterity assumed the name of the place, and possessed it until the reign of Henry VIII, when their heiress conveyed it in marriage to Thomas, lord Dacre, of Gilsland, whose family ended in two daughters, who married two sons of the duke of Norfolk, as will be seen in the history of Gilsland barony at a subsequent page. Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, the duke's eldest son, had, with his wife, lady Anne Dacre, the barony of Greystoke, which has since continued in his illustrious family. He died in the 38th of Elizabeth, and the following personages have since been lords of this castle and barony, viz., Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey, who died in 1713; Henry Charles Howard, who died in 1720, and was succeeded by his son, Charles, duke of Norfolk, who died in 1786, when his honours and princely estates passed to his only son, Charles, the fourteenth duke of Norfolk, and eleventh of this family, "earl marshal and hereditary earl marshal of England, earl of Arundel, Surrey, Norfolk, and Norwich; baron Mowbray, Howard, Segrave, Brewse of Gower, FitzAllen, Warren, Clun, Oswaldestre, Maltravers, Greystoke, Furnival, Verdon, Lovelot, Strange of Blackmere, and Howard of Castle Rising; premier duke, earl, and baron of England, next the blood royal." His grace died without issue on the 16th December, 1815, and bequeathed Greystoke, and his estates in Cumberland and Westmorland, to Henry Howard, Esq., only son of lord Henry Howard Molyneux Howard, brother to Bernard Edward, late duke of Norfolk, and father of the present duke. For further particulars respecting several branches of this noble family, see the histories of Carlisle, Corby, and Naworth; the reader is also referred to the 'Memorials of the Howard Family,' by Henry Howard, Esq., of Corby Castle. Henry Howard, Esq., of Greystoke Castle, and of Thornbury Castle, Gloucestershire, is lord of all the manors in this barony, excepting Threlkeld, of which the earl of Lonsdale is lord; he is also the principal land owner of the parish, which contains about 47,700 acres. A.F. Hudleston, Esq. of Hutton John, W.A. Bushby, Esq. of Greystoke, and Mrs. Marshall, of Hallsteads, are also considerable proprietors in this parish. The townships of Greystoke, Little Blencow, Johnby, and Motherby and Gill, are united for the support of their poor, and all the other townships in the parish support their paupers separately.

Greystoke, Greystock, or Graystock, the village which is the head of this parish, is pleasantly situated near the source of the river Petteril, 5 miles W. by N. of Penrith, and contiguous to the large and beautiful park in which stands Greystoke Castle, the seat of Henry Howard, Esq. The original castle is supposed to have been built soon after the year 1353; William de Greystoke having obtained the king's licence to castellate his manor-house of Greystoke, in that year. It was almost entirely rebuilt about the middle of the last century, by the Hon. Charles Howard, and greatly improved by his great grandson, Charles. The park contains between five and six thousand acres, enclosed by a wall nine feet in height, and well stocked with deer.

The castle is a magnificent mansion, at the south-east end of the park, at the foot of which rolls a rapid stream, which is collected into two large reservoirs, and discharged down artificial falls; and the adjoining ground is laid out in tastefully arranged shrubberies and grass slopes. The upper sheet of water is of considerable extent, lying in a fine curve, and bounded by a hanging wood, which clothes a lofty eminence of a wild and romantic aspect; and here the water of the whole rivulet falls about 16 feet over steps which break into foam. Having passed the lower reservoir, the stream forms a second waterfall, and then, leaving the pleasure grounds, rushes over a natural channel, through a small arch in its course to the Petteril. The castle has been for some years undergoing very extensive repairs, from designs of A. Salvin, Esq. F.S.A. architect. There is an excellent modern staircase, and a good suite of apartments on the ground floor. Several very valuable paintings and portraits, by the first masters, are distributed through the rooms; and on a pedestal at the foot of the staircase are busts of Thomas earl of Arundel, and the Lady Alathea Talbot, his wife. The furniture is all of very ancient workmanship, and any article of a modern date is made in strict unison with the antique style of the rooms, and of the furniture in them. Many of the carpets have been worked by the ladies of the several branches of the Howard family. Here is a very ancient staircase, of black oak, much prized by Mr. Howard. On several of the walls are beautiful pieces of ancient tapestry; and here is a large white hat, said to have belonged to St. Thomas Becket.

greystoke.jpg (32768 bytes)Greystoke Church is a spacious structure, consisting of a nave, two aisles, a south porch, a choir, and a massive tower at the west end; and contains the most extensive examples of the perpendicular style of architecture in the county. It is dedicated to St. Andrew, and appears from Dugdale and Dr. Todd to have been made collegiate before the year 1358, though the college does not seem to have been erected here before 1383, when, upon the application of Ralph, lord Greystoke, the Pope's licence was obtained to that effect. It is accordingly said to have been made collegiate in this year, with a master and six cannons, whose stalls still remain in the chancel, but their six chantries, dedicated to St. Andrew, St. Mary, St. John Baptist, St. Katherine, St. Thomas Becket, and St. Peter, have long since disappeared. The six circular piers in the nave were considerably heightened in 1818, so that the present coup d'œil, is grand and imposing. In the windows are several pieces of good stained glass, much mutilated and displaced; and the east window appears to have been richly ornamented with historical subjects relating to St. Andrew. Near the altar is a fine alabaster tomb, on which recline two knights clad in plate armour - some of the barons of Greystoke; and in the church are several splendid mural monuments. The benefice is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 40 7s. 8d. but now worth upwards of 800 a year. The patronage was sold in 1746, by Charles Howard, Esq. afterwards duke of Norfolk, to Adam Askew, Esq. of Redheugh, near Gateshead, whose descendant, Henry W. Askew, Esq. son of the present rector, now holds the patronage, and also that of the three parochial chapels of Matterdale, Mungrisedale, and Watermillock, but the earl of Lonsdale presents to Threlkeld. The Rev. Henry Askew is the rector, and the Rev. John S. Mulcaster is curate. Wm. A. Bushby, Esq. and Mrs. Dowson have estates and neat mansions at Greystoke.

Near Whitbarrow fields are the vestiges of an encampment, by some called Redstone Camp, but by Camden, Stone Carron; and the adjoining ground still retains the name of Stone Carr1. It is supposed to have been an observatory from the Roman station at Old Penrith. On the south side of the turnpike road from Penrith to Keswick are some vestiges of an ancient road leading from Stone Carr, between the two hills called Mell-fells2, to the head of Gowbarrow Park, where it is lost, though it is supposed to have extended to Ambleside. In this tract lies a large cairn, called Woundel, and there are two others near Mell-fells. Human bones, coffins, urns, &c. have been found in the vicinity of Stone Carr; and on Mell-fells is a stone floor, supposed to have been a smelting hearth. A circle of stones, seventeen yards in diameter, was to be seen near Motherby until a few years ago, when it was removed.

The male and female schools in the village of Greystoke are chiefly supported by annual subscriptions, the subscribers having power to place a certain number of children in the schools at half the usual charge. Mr. Wm. Routledge is the present master, and Mrs. Grace M'Combe is the mistress. In 1841 the population of the township was 364 souls.

Berrier and Murrah, the former a straggling village, eight miles west of Penrith, and the latter a few detached houses, nine miles west by north of the same town, form a township of about 120 inhabitants. Here is a girls school, which was built in 1829, by subscription, on ground given by Henry Howard, Esq. It is endowed with 7 per annum. The township is rated at 991 a year. Population in 1841, 127.

Blencow, Little, is a hamlet and township, four miles N.W. of Penrith, lying west of Great Blencow, which is in Dacre parish. It gave name to an ancient family, by whom it was long possessed, and who were first seated at Great Blencow. In 1802, Henry Prescot Blencowe, Esq. of Thoby Priory, in Essex, sold his estate here, to Charles, duke of Norfolk, and it is now in the possession of Henry Howard, Esq. of Greystoke Castle. The hall, now occupied by a farmer, has a beautifully festooned front, and consists of two square embattled towers, connected by a curtain of domestic buildings. Near to the hall are the ruins of a chapel, with a burial ground adjoining, in which is a fountain of spring water, supposed to have been used as a baptistry. The spring is not affected by the severest drought, and until lately "bubbled up plentifully," but is now covered over. There is also near the hall an ancient cemetery, in which there was a stone cross, with the arms of the Blencows, one of whom, Adam Blencow, Esq. was a standard bearer at the battles of Crecy and Poitiers3, under the command of William, baron of Greystoke, who, as a reward for his services, made him a grant of his own arms to be borne on a bend, conjoined with his paternal coat. This cross now fills a niche in the exterior of one of the angles of Greystoke Castle. Population in 1841, 69.

Bowscale is a township and small hamlet, in a romantic situation at the foot of a lofty fell, ten miles W. by N. of Penrith, on the south side of the river Caldew. Upon the fell is Bowscale Tarn, nearly a mile in length4, and surrounded with such a lofty ridge of rocks that, during four months in winter, it is excluded from the benefit of the sun, and is said sometimes to reflect the stars at noon day. There is a small Friends' Meeting House in this district. Population in 1841, 31.

Hutton John is a small township with only three houses, 5 miles W. by S. of Penrith. It was anciently held of the barony of Greystoke, by one of the Huttons, of Hutton. Thomas Hutton, dying without issue in the reign of Elizabeth, the estate passed by marriage to Andrew Huddleston, Esq. whose descendant, Andrew F. Huddleston, Esq. now resides at the Hall, which consists of a square castellated tower, and which has undergone considerable improvements within the last few years. Owing to the confiscation by Oliver Cromwell5, of the other property belonging to this branch of the Huddlestons, for their attachment to the royal cause, this had become their only place of residence. To the old Gothic tower of the mansion house, some modern erections have since been added, which have impaired the original character of the building, though it retains a venerable appearance. The house is situated at the head of the beautiful vale of Dacre, down which it commands an extensive and delightful prospect. The "piece of gilt plate," said to have been given by the princess (afterwards queen) Mary, to her god-daughter, Miss Hutton, the lady by whom the Huddlestons obtained this township, is still preserved in the house; and there is also an original portrait of Father Huddleston, the priest who assisted Charles II to escape after the battle of Worcester6, and administered to him the last sacrament, "tatis su anno 78," painted by "Housman, 1685." The principal inhabitants are Andrew F. Huddleston, Esq. magistrate, Hutton John, and Christopher Pears, farmer, High-gate. Population in 1841, 25 souls.

Hutton Roof is a small village and township on an eminence, 10 miles W.N.W. of Penrith, and 4 miles S.S.E. of Hesket New Market. It contains about 200 souls; and Henry Howard, Esq. is lord of the manor. Here is a school, endowed by the late Richard Richards, Esq. of this township. The land and money in the funds yield 95 a year, but out of this sum a number of books of a religious character are distributed annually by the clergy of this and the neighbouring parishes, and 13 are distributed in bread to thirty poor people.

Scales, a hamlet in this township, 9 miles N.W. of Penrith.

Hutton Soil is a township containing a number of scattered houses, and the village of Penruddock, 6 miles W. by S. of Penrith. Henry Howard, Esq. is lord of the manor, in which is Mell-fell, where is the stone floor noticed above. The population of the township is 359. In Penruddock is an Independent chapel, of which the Rev. John Miller is minister; and here is also a neat Wesleyan chapel. On the estate of Mr. R. L. Sutton, is a cloven stone7, 51 feet in circumference, and 11 feet 3 inches in height; the slit, supposed to have been caused by electricity, is 18 inches wide, and divides the mass nearly into two equal parts. Th weight of this huge block is considered to be about 500 tons; and as there is no rock in the vicinity from which it could have been broken, the supposition is that it must have been deposited here by the deluge.

Johnby is a small township of scattered houses, 5 miles N. of Penrith. It is a dependant manor of the barony of Greystoke, but the estate was formerly held by the Musgraves, of Hayton Castle, from whom it passed to the Wyvills, of Yorkshire, who sold it to William Williams, gentleman, steward of Greystoke Castle, whose eldest daughter conveyed it in marriage to Sir Edward Hasell, knight. The manor and estates were sold in 1783, by William Hasell, Esq. to Charles, duke of Norfolk, and is now in the possession of Henry Howard, Esq. of Greystoke Castle. The hall is a substantial square building, and appears to have been erected about the year 1583. It is now occupied by a farmer. Population in 1841, 88 souls.

Matterdale is a township and chapelry, 9 miles S.W. by W. of Penrith, containing the hamlets of Matterdale End, Wallthwaite, Dockray, and Dowthwaite Head, and 363 inhabitants, chiefly small landowners, who pay annually to the lord of Greystoke 8s., and to the curate 2s. 6d. for each tenement or estate, of which there are about 76. The manor is encompassed by lofty mountains, the largest of which is High Dodd8, whose summit is nearly on a level with Skiddaw. The sides of these hills afford excellent pasturage for sheep, and on some of their summits is a profusion of peat moss, which makes excellent fuel. After a protracted lawsuit against A. Huddleston, Esq. lord of the manor of Hutton John, the inhabitants of Matterdale, in 1690, obtained a decree in chancery, confirming the right of pasturage on Wester Mell-fell, a beautiful conical hill, which commands an extensive prospect, including the Scottish mountains and part of Yorkshire and Cheshire9. The chapel, which was made parochial in 1580, by Bishop Meye, is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the rector of Greystoke. The present building was erected in 1685; and the living has been long endowed with land of the annual value of 3 10s. It was augmented with 600, from queen Anne's bounty, and 200 from the countess dowager Gower, so that it is now worth about 80 per annum, and is enjoyed by the Rev. W. R. Duncan. In 1716 the Hon. Henry Charles Howard gave 1 acre of land, on which, in 1722, the Rev. Robert Grisdale erected a school, and endowed it with the interest of 200 vested in thirteen trustees, who fix the quarterage, which varies from 2s. to 3s. In the school is a library of about 200 volumes, left in 1723 by Mrs. Elizabeth Grisdale, for the use of the inhabitants. In 1832 Jonathan Murray, Esq. of Matterdale, bequeathed to the trustees 1000 three per cent consolidated bank annuities, free from legacy duty, the yearly proceeds thereof to be paid as follows - 2 to the minister for preaching an annual sermon to aged people, and 2 for another sermon to young people; 10 to be distributed yearly to the poor in meat or other necessaries; and the residue to be applied to the use of the school. The poor have also about 6 distributed yearly amongst them from various other bequests.

Dockwray hamlet is 10 miles S.W. of Penrith; Dowthwaite hamlet is 7 miles E.S.E. of Keswick, and 13 miles S.W. by W. of Penrith, near the head of a rapid stream that flows to Ullswater; and Wallthwaite Head is a hamlet. 6 miles E. by N. of Keswick. Here, on the night of the 29th July, 1846, a storm of thunder and lightning raged with a violence unparalleled in the memory of the oldest inhabitants. The waters of Mosedale Beck rose suddenly to a great height, and moved huge blocks of stone, one of which was supposed to be upwards of 70 tons weight; and the beck bursting out in two places, about an acre of land was left covered with a deep bed of stone and gravel; then rushing in the direction of the farm buildings, it swept away large logs of wood in its course, and filled the house of Mr. Matthew Bennett with water, three feet deep, so that the family were obliged to repair to the upper story. Another portion of the water took its course to the rear of the barn, carrying with it immense quantities stone and rubbish, which nearly levelled the plantation, now about fourteen or fifteen feet high, and a smithy that lay a mile up the valley was entirely washed away. Large quantities of fish, of about half a pound weight, were deposited over the adjoining fields; the newly erected foot bridge, on stone piers laid in mortar, was also washed away, and large breaches made in the fence walls of several fields . The waters likewise carried away the entire crop of potatoes, of nearly three acres, from Appleton Croft. The darkness during the storm was intense, and the spectators could only discover their position from the vivid flashes of lightning, which continued, and the thunder was not heard from the noise of the rushing waters sweeping before them huge stones, sand, trees, &c. &c.

Motherby and Gill township, the former 6 miles west, and the latter 5 miles west by south of Penrith, form a township containing about 90 inhabitants, and is a manor in Greystoke barony, belonging to Henry Howard, Esq.

Mungrisedale is a village, township, and chapelry, eleven miles west by north of Penrith, on the west of Greystoke, to which barony it belongs, and is encompassed by Bowscale fell, Souter Fell, Carrock, and other lofty eminences. The population is 222 souls. Here is a quarry of blue slate, and flag stones. Near the village the water runs in opposite directions, so that a person with his foot only, may send it either to Carlisle by the Caldew, or to Cockermouth by the Glenderamakin10, which nearly surrounds Souter Fell, a lofty eminence, on which several distant observers, on three different nights, in 1735, 1737, and 1745, saw grand exhibitions of ignis fatuus, representing marching armies, with horses, carriages, &c., ominous, it was said, of war and rebellion. The Chapel of Ease is endowed with a dwelling house and garden, and it received augmentations of 200 from queen Anne's bounty, in 1773; 200 by lot, in 1745; 200 given by the inhabitants in 1766; and 200 given by the countess-dowager Gower. With these sums land was purchased at Blackburton and Dilliker11, which produces about 54 per annum. The rector of Greystoke is the patron, and the Rev. Daniel Wilson is perpetual curate. Here is a school, endowed in 1835, by Jonathan Scott, Esq. of Watermillock, with 35 a year, arising from an estate at Mosedale. The Revd. Thos. B. Lowry, of Watermillock, Revd. John Dayman, of Skelton, Henry Howard, Esq., of Greystoke Castle, and four others, are the trustees, and Mr. Philip Turner is the master. The eminent mathematician, Mr. John Slee, who died at Tirrel, in 1828, was born in Mungrisedale.

Threlkeld is a township and chapelry on the Penrith road, 4 miles E. by N. of Keswick, on the south side of Saddleback12. The earl of Lonsdale is lord of the manor. The chapel, said to be the oldest in the diocese, is dedicated to Saint Mary, and enjoys parochial privileges. From a dispute which arose in the year 1341, respecting the nomination of a curate, it is clear there was a chapel here before that year. The register book, which begins in 1573, proves an extraordinary custom of the place: "formal contracts of marriage are herein recorded; and sureties entered for the payment of five shillings to the poor, by the party that draws back." The earl of Lonsdale is the patron, and the Rev. Thos. Collinson is the incumbent, who receives a yearly presentation of 3 17s. in lieu of the tithe of corn, hay, &c. In 1720, the living was certified to the governors of queen Anne's bounty, at 8 16s. 6d., and in 1747 it received an augmentation of 200 with which lands were purchased near Kendal, then of the yearly value of 6 10s. The benefice is now worth about 50 per annum. In 1744, a messuage, tenement, croft, and several closes of land situate at Towngate were purchased with 105 public money, nearly one half being poor stock, and the remainder, "school stock, church stock, and parson's stock." The proceeds to be applied towards the maintenance of the poor, to the schoolmaster, to the repairs and ornaments of the church, and to the curate.

In 1844, the Rev. C. Cockbain bequeathed 50, the interest of which to be expended in the purchase of bibles and prayer books for the poor of this township. The Rev. Alex. Naugley, who was 51 years curate of Threlkeld, was noted both for classical learning and eccentricity. "He lived in the most homely and slovenly manner, never tasting any food better than brown bread or oatmeal, which he seasoned with a little salt, and boiled in his only pan, which he never washed. His hearth was seldom cleared of embers, and his whole apartment was strewed over with books and papers, intermingled with his household implements. His dress was the meanest in the parish; he wore wooden clogs, and never indulged his neck with the luxury of a handkerchief, or any kind of covering. The most extraordinary circumstance of his life was an act of abscision13, which he performed under some sad state of mind." He died, 1756, in the 70th year of his age.

Watermillock is another township and parochial chapelry, containing a small hamlet and several gentlemen's seats, beautifully situated on the N. side of Ullswater, seven miles S.W. of Penrith: its population is 524 souls. Henry Howard, Esq. of Greystoke, is lord of the manor; and the chapelry includes Gowbarrow parks, which contain about 2300 acres, of which about 700 are retained as a deer park, the remainder having been let as farms. Near the centre of the park is Lyulph's tower, a hunting seat of H. Howard, Esq., built by one of the dukes of Norfolk. It commands an extensive and beautiful view of the lake and mountain scenery. Here is also Airey Forse Cascade14, which, with the legend connected with it, supplied the plot and last scene of Bellini's celebrated opera of "La Sonnambula." The Chapel is endowed with a house, about 23 acres of land, and a prescriptive payment of 6 11s. 4d. out of which 2 are paid to the rector of Greystoke, who is patron of the curacy, which is now worth about 100 a year, having received an augmentation from the ecclesiastical commissioners, and is enjoyed by the Rev. T. B. Lowry. There was a chapel on the margin of the lake here in the reign of Edward III, but it was not possessed of parochial rights until rebuilt in 1558, by bishop Oglethorp. It was then called New Kirk. There are several seats in this chapelry, viz. Hallsteads, the beautiful rural villa of Mrs. Jane Marshall; Old Church, the mansion of Miss Pollard; Beauthorn, the pleasant seat of Thomas Wilson, Esq.; Rampsbeck Lodge, the seat of F. B. Atkinson, Esq., and a few others. The School is endowed with 525 Stock, at 3 per cent consols, purchased with a public subscription, and yielding 18 10s. a year, but the master, (Mr. Wm. Hodgson,) is not required to receive any free scholars. Here is also a female school, to which Mrs. Marshall contributes 10 a year. Thomas Rumney, Esq. of Mell Fell, left the interest of 500 to five poor householders in this chapelry, not receiving parochial relief.


Mannix & Whellan, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Cumberland, 1847




1. Stone Carr is marked on maps as an enclosure, and it is just west of Penruddock.
2. "The two hills called Mell-fells" - these are now known as Great Mell Fell and Little Mell Fell.
3. The battle of Crecy took place in 1346, and Poitiers was in 1356.
4. The writers hopelessly exaggerate the size of Bowscale Tarn - in reality it can only be about a quarter of a mile long.
5. Oliver Cromwell was the victor of the English Civil War, fought between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians, 1642-1651
6. The battle of Worcester took place in 1651, and was the final battle of the civil war.
7. The cloven stone will undoubtedly have been deposited here at the end of the Ice Age.
8. High Dodd must be what is now called Great Dodd. At 856 metres, it stands not far short of Skiddaw's 931 metres.
9. Wester Mell-fell is now Great Mell Fell. I am very sceptical about the claim of Cheshire being visible from its summit.
10. The Glenderamakin is now the Glanderamackin.
11. Blackburton and Dilliker - I don't know where these places are. My appreciation to John Elsworth for advising me that Blackburton was an old name for Burton-in-Lonsdale, in Yorkshire. The "black" signifying potteries, of which old maps show many in the immediate area.
12. Saddleback, as it is still popularly known, is properly Blencathra
13. "abscision" - I presume this to mean self-mutilation of the most intimate kind.
14. Airey Forse Cascade is now known as Aira Force. For the associated legend, see Wordsworth's "Somnambulist".

Greystoke parish contains the hill "Souter Fell". In 1744, 26 people witnessed a phantom army crossing the fell, and some of the witnesses attested to it in a legal document in 1785. A short description of the events is given in Mannix, and it can be found here.

Photo Steve Bulman.

31 December 2016

Steve Bulman