This parish is bounded by the parishes of Kendal, Burton, and Beetham, and by a small part of Cartmell1 Fells; extends northward from Milnthorp2 to Crosthwaite, a distance of eight miles, and is about three miles in breadth. It is intersected by the Lancaster and Carlisle railway, the Kendal and Lancaster canal, the rivers Kent and Belo3, and several becks or rivulets, winding through picturesque vallies, between diversified fells, scars, crags, and fertile undulated grounds, studded with neat hamlets and farm houses. It contains three chapels of ease, and the following seven townships, viz., Crosthwaite and Lyth (chapelry), Hincaster, Levens,* Milnthorp and Heversham, Preston Richard, Sedgwick, and Stainton, the two latter forming the chapelry of Crosscrake.
HEVERSHAM is a small but neat village, with several good houses pleasantly situated on the Kendal road, one mile and a quarter from the small market town of Milnthorp, and six miles S. by W. from Kendal. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, or St. Peter4, is a fine Gothic structure, with side aisles, and a square tower in which are three bells, cast in the years 1605, 1662, and 1669. The present edifice has evidently been erected at different periods, the south arcade of the nave and the lower part of the tower being of a date not later than the 12th century, the chancel and south aisle, and the chapel of Upper and Lower Levens, of the 15th, and the north aisle was completely rebuilt about 1601, in which year a great part of the church was consumed by an accidental fire, with its bells, and organ, &c. In 1609, a new organ was put up in the church, "but it was probably demolished in the civil wars; for music and monarchy were alike detested by the Presbyterians." It was repaired in 1770, when a large quantity of human bones was found in an old cemetery a few yards east of the porch. In 1844, the old chancel window was replaced by a new one of stained glass, at a cost of 160 guineas, and in the same year the interior of the church was thoroughly repaired, so that it is now remarkably neat and has several mural tablets in memory of the Bellingham, Preston, and other families.
Soon after the Conquest the church of Eversheim, as it was then called, was granted by Ivo de Talebois, to St. Mary's abbey, York, and in 1459, was appropriated to the said abbey by Archbishop Boothe. After the dissolution of the monasteries, Queen Mary, in 1553, granted the rectory and advowson to Trinity College, Cambridge, except the corntithes of Crosthwaite, which had been previously granted by Edward VI to John Southcoat and Henry Cheverton. The said college has still the patronage of the vicarage which is valued in the king's books at £36 13s. 4d., and is now enjoyed by the Rev. R. W. Evens, B.D. who was inducted in 1842. At the enclosure of the commons in 1803, the tithes of the whole parish were commuted for an allotment of about 650 acres given to the vicarage; and an allotment of 663 acres, with the Plumgarths estate in Strickland Kettle - purchased by such of the townships as had not common land - given to the before mentioned college in lieu of rectorial tithes. "The vicar's allotment, when ringfenced by the parish, was valued at £420 a year, and the lands given to the college at £600 a year. They are both held of the commissioners of the Inclosure Act, under a renewable lease of twenty-six years."
The Grammar school, which stands near the church, "was founded in 1613, by Edward Wilson, of Nether Levens, who endowed it with twenty-six burgage messuages and tenements in Kendal, (from which the master receives £21 12s. 8d. yearly,) and a rent charge of £3 out of Dawson's close, in Strickland Kettle. Being without a master from 1698 till 1737, the school was suffered to decay, but was rebuilt in the latter year by Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff5, and William Preston, Bishop of Ferns, in Ireland, both of whom had received the rudiments of their education here. In 1788, Henry Wilson, then vicar of Heversham, in conjunction with the associates of Dr. Bray, founded a library in the school, and prevailed upon the inhabitants to subscribe £230 to purchase a dwelling-house for the master, with two fields and an allotment of moss-land, so that the master's yearly income from the school endowment is now upwards of £50, having received an allotment of land at the enclosure. The school is open to all the boys of the parish without charge, except for writing and arithmetic. In 1824, £267 11s. was subscribed to rebuild the school and house." The founder of this school also endowed it with two exhibitions of £40 each, one to Queen's College, Oxford, and the other to Trinity College, Cambridge, to be paid out of the great tithes of Leek6. These exhibitions had been many years withheld, but were at length recovered in the Duchy court of Lancaster, in the 24th of Charles II, with £500 arrears and interest, and now affords £53 per annum to each scholar who is to remain only four years at college, and is to be nominated by the heirs of the founder. There is also an exhibition of £20 8s. 9d. a year from this school to Magdalen college, Cambridge, called Milner's exhibition, to be held four years, and it has the privilege of sending a candidate for one of Lady Hasting's five exhibitions, in Queen's College, Oxford. Rev. James H. Sharples, M.A. is the present master.
MILNTHORP a small market town, forming a
joint township and manor with Heversham, is situated on the north side of the river Belo,
near the estuary of the Kent, seven miles and a half S.W. of Kendal by road, and eight
miles and a half by rails, four miles N.W. of Burton, fourteen N. of Lancaster, and 254
miles N.W. by N. of London. The town which consists chiefly of one street has a clean and
pleasing appearance, and is distant one mile from the Milnthorp station, on the Lancaster
and Carlisle railway. It is a dependant port under Lancaster, but vessels can seldom get
nearer to it than Arnside or Haverbrack, so that the business done here, the only part7 in Westmorland, is very trifling. The population of the
township of Milnthorp with Heversham, in 1841, amounted to 1599 souls. The market is held
on Friday, and two fairs for cattle, sheep, and horses, are held annually on the 12th of
May and 17th of October. The latter was established about thirty-two years ago, but the
May fair is of ancient date. There is also a cattle fair held every alternate Tuesday, at
Milnthorp station. This fair was established in 1849. In 1777 there were two paper mills
here; at present there is one about a mile from the town.
The National school, which was established here in 1819, is supported chiefly by subscription, and affords gratuitous instruction to a large number of children. The late Daniel Wilson, Esq., of Dallam Tower, gave the ground on which the school is erected, and his successor George Wilson, Esq., is a liberal contributor towards the support of this beneficial institution.
The Workhouse, situate about a quarter of a mile N.E. of the town, was erected in 1813, at the cost of £4,990 agreeable to an act of parliament, passed in the 22nd of George III, but all the townships by which it was built are included in the Kendal union, except Dalton and Yealand-Redmayne, in Lancashire. It has apartments for 284 paupers, but the number in it at present is only 120. They are employed at twine spinning. Mr. Samuel Mc'Gowan is the master, and his wife in matron.
The hamlets of Ackenthwaite, Deepthwaite, Leasgill, Rowell, and Woodhouses, are all, except part of Leasgill, in the township of Heversham and Milnthorp, distant from half a mile to two miles S. of the latter. The pleasant villas of Heversham house, G. E. Wilson, Esq.; Plumtree hall, Mrs. Braithwaite; and Deepthwaite, Mrs. Cartmell, are within this township.
The manor of Heversham belonged, at the time of the Norman Conquest, to Tosti, Earl of Northumberland, from whom it passed to Roger of Poictou, and from him to the barons of Kendal, one of whom, William de Lancastre, gave it in marriage with his daughter to Alexander de Windesore, who in 1280, obtained from Edward I a charter for a market and fair, to be held at Heversham, which have been all along held at Milnthorp. Part of the manor was afterwards in the possession of St. Mary's abbey, York, and part passed to the Docket family, but after the dissolution of that sacred establishment, in 1557, Philip and Mary granted the manor to Edmund Moyses, Richard Foster, and Richard Buskell, from whose descendants it passed through several families to its present possessor Mrs. Howard, of Levens, but most of the tenants have been enfranchised. From a register of St. Bees priory, in Cumberland, it appears that some lands in Heversham belonged at one time to that establishment.
The Right Rev. Richard Watson, D.D., Bishop of Llandaff, Regius Professor of Divinity in Cambridge University, &c., was born at Heversham, in 1737, and died in 1816, at Calgarth, his seat, on the banks of Windermere, and was buried at Bowness. "He was," says the Kendal Chronicle of that day, "the son of a poor but worthy clergyman, who brought up a numerous family on the slender stipend of Cross Crake chapel, and the profits of Heversham grammar school, where he made many excellent scholars. Poverty, however, did not prevent him from sending his son to the University, but the narrowness of the young man's means obliged him to make his appearance at Cambridge in the then rustic dress of his native county, where his blue woollen stockings, and homespun coat, procured him the name of the Westmorland phenomenon amongst those of his contemporaries who had more reason to be proud of their clothes than of their learning. This appellation, though intended as a mark of ridicule, proved prophetic of the youth's future career in literature. The high esteem in which Dr. Watson was held by the University of Cambridge, appears from the indulgence granted him during his latter years, of delegating the duties of his professorship to a deputy, which we believe to be the only instance of non-residence ever permitted to the divinity professor. His principal writings are his Tracts, Apology for the Bible, Popular essays On Chemistry, in five volumes, with a variety of political pamphlets which were read with avidity at the time of their Publication."
CROSTHWAITE AND LYTH is a large township and chapelry, forming a picturesque and highly cultivated district, extending from four to eight miles N.N.W. of Milnthorp, and containing the hamlets of Bowland Bridge, Crosthwaite Church Town, Crossthwaite-green, How, Hubbersty-head, Pool-bank, Raw, and Tarn-side, with a number of dispersed dwellings. Lyth is a separate constablewick, separated from Witherslack by the long ridge called Lyth Fell, or Whitbarrow Scar. Near Crosthwaite green is a large bobbin manufactory, formerly a paper mill, carried on by Mr. Joseph Rushforth, and situated about six miles from Kendal. Crosthwaite cornmill, about five miles from Kendal is the property of Mr. James Wilson, who is also a bone-crusher and maltster.
The chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, stands near the small but pleasant village of Church-town, in the centre of the vale of Crosthwaite, which stretches in a westerly direction as far as Bowland Bridge, near Cartmell Fells. It was rebuilt by the inhabitants about thirty-six years ago, and will seat about 300 hearers. It is about eight miles N.W. by N. of Milnthorp. The original fabric was very ancient, but was not made parochial till the reign of Queen Mary, 1556, when Cuthbert, Bishop of Chester, in consideration of its great distance from the mother church, granted a licence that "mass shall be celebrated in the said chapel, the canonical hours rehearsed, the bodies of the dead buried, and the sacraments administered by fit priests canonically ordained, having first been approved by the vicar of Heversham, for the time being." About the year 1580, the inhabitants of the chapelry entered into an agreement with the rest of the parish to contribute towards the support of the mother church, and to pay 17s. yearly to the parish clerk. In 1626, Mr. William Gilpin built the chancel and steeple, and gave £50 towards three bells for this chapel, which is at present a very handsome edifice. The living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the landowners, and now in the incumbency of the Rev. John Dixon, who is also master of the school. It has been augmented since 1716, with £1000 of Queen Anne's Bounty, £200 raised by subscription, and the interest of £400, of the £2000 left in 1817, by Tobias Atkinson, who directed that the interest of £300 should be paid to a schoolmaster, and £10 yearly to each of six indigent widows belonging to the chapelry above the age of 50, and who had never received parochial relief. Of the chapel money, £600 was laid out in the purchase of an estate at Dent, in Yorkshire, and another in Little Langdale, and £600 still remains at interest in the Bounty Office. "There is also a small cottage belonging to the Curate, and an ancient yearly salary of £5 8s. 10d. paid by the inhabitants."
The School-house, which was built by subscription, stands near the chapel, and is endowed with about £13 a year arising from various gifts, besides the interest of the above-named £300. About the year 1810, the inhabitants allotted about 538 acres of the common land to be for ever appropriated towards the support of paupers and other purposes, so that the poor-rates here are now very moderate.
Dr. Burn mentions three pits in Watermillock in this Chapelry, the largest of which is commonly said to be unfathomable. About eighty years ago an oak tree was dug up in Lythmoss, containing 2000 feet of wood. A very remarkable beech tree was cut down at a place called High, in Crosthwaite, about the year 1758. It measured 605 feet, and a single branch which was blown down by a hurricane in 1756, measured 193 feet.
HINCASTER is a small township, with a
village and a few scattered houses, two and a quarter miles N.E. of Milnthorp, and five
and a half S. of Kendal. The soil is various, and the township abounds with Limestone. In
the Domesday Book it is called Hennecastre, "which name," says Burn,
"seems to import that this place had formerly been the site of a castle; for hene
signifies old, and castre a castle." But as there is no tradition or traces
of a castle here, it may have received its name from some ancient camp, "which the
word castre also denotes." Richard I granted to Gilbert, the seventh Baron
of Kendal and his heirs one carucate of land here, to hold of the king by
knight's service; and in the reign of Edward I "there was one Adam de Henecastre, who
had a daughter, Avicia, married to Sir Thomas de Hellbeck, who brought with her divers
lands into the Hellbeck family." Burns's Westmorland, page 202.
This venerable castellated mansion is deeply embosomed in wood, but the summits of its towers command extensive views of the surrounding country. The Hall is supposed to have been erected in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but it has been frequently repaired and beautified, and now, "as an object for the attention of the antiquary, or the lover of the picturesque, stands unrivalled in this part of the country. The interior possesses an endless variety of carved work. Except the new tower, all the building abounds with carved oak wainscots, &c., representing a great variety of figures, emblems, and ornaments, said to have been lavishly bestowed on the Hall, in the reign of Elizabeth, by one of the Bellinghams, who was determined to outdo his contemporary, Walter Strickland, Esq., of Sizergh, in his taste for such decorations." Though the house is no way altered from its original form, great improvements were made in every part by the late Hon. Fulk Greville Howard, "he having found it in a state of dilapidation, and laid out many thousands in the purchase of valuable furniture according with the antiquity of the place, besides repairing the waste which time had made." It is said that the carved work in the north dining room is so rich that it has been valued at no less than £3000, according to the present scale of wages. It has a most interesting carved chimney-piece supported by large figures of Hercules and Sampson, and bearing in compartments admirable emblematical representations of the five senses, four elements and four seasons, with a poetical inscription. Another room is hung with rich gobeline tapestry, representing a pathetic tale from one of the Italian poet, most exquisitely finished; in fact all the principal apartments are decorated with the most costly hangings of the richest colour, in all the splendour of tint, and corresponding with the rest of the furniture. In the entrance hall are various relics of ancient armour bearing the bruises of war and the rust of time. The view from the lower apartments is not very extensive, but the wood in the grounds being very ancient and finely planted in avenues and clumps, the prospect on every side is of the most agreeable kind. An extensive tract of level ground, sweetly broken with trees, extends along the river and runs through the large park, near to which is the Waterfall called Levens Force, where the stream of the Kent tumbles from a rock sufficiently high to convert it into froth as white as snow. "On the southern side of the river, at the place called Kirksteads, are the remains of a circular building said to have been a temple dedicated to Diana,"9 and "on the north side of the river is a spring called the 'Dropping Well,' which is of a petrifying quality, and which, in a short space of time, will turn moss, wood, leaves, and the like into stone."
It has been truly said that "Levens Gardens are the admiration of every visitor to this delightful seat." They were first laid out and planted in the old German style by Mr. Beaumont, gardener to James II, who resided here with Colonel Graham, during some part of the troubles of his royal master. Some years ago these gardens were in a wild and neglected state, but Colonel Howard, who had a well-cultivated taste for the "style and fashion of other days," greatly improved them without changing their original form, under the judicious management of Mr. Alexander Forbes, who has been for a number of years gardener here, and who, in 1820, published an excellent work on "Ornamental Gardening." The walks and arbours are shaded with a profusion of yews, olives, and other evergreens, cut into a variety of grotesque forms, and in the centre of the garden is an excellent bowling-green." Amid these sylvan scenes the mayor and corporation of Kendal, with the friends of the successive lords of Levens, have, since the day of Colonel Graham, spent many a jovial evening, after proclaiming the fair at Milnthorp, on the 12th of May."
Levens Chapel is a neat gothic edifice, situated in the village of Beathwaite Green. It has an octagonal spire rising from a short tower, and being on an eminence, is a conspicuous object in the view at a considerable distance. The chapel was erected in 1828, at an expense of £2000, by the late Hon. F. G. Howard and his lady, who also endowed the curacy with £200 a year, and built a commodious house for the clergyman; the Rev. Wm. Stephens is the present curate. They likewise left £10 a year for the clerk. In 1810 Lady Howard established a school here, in which she generously pays for the instruction, and partly clothes several poor girls. In 1825 Colonel Howard erected another school, which is also endowed, and now very efficiently conducted by William Hiscock; so that the inhabitants must ever remember with gratitude the munificence of the late and present representative of the house of Levens.
The Manor of Levens, which, in the Domesday Book, is called Lefuenes, was held at the time of the conquest by Tosti, Earl of Northumberland, from whom it passed to Roger Poictou, and afterwards to Ketel, son of Uchtred, who had large possessions in this part of the county, but in 1188 sold that part of this manor called Over Levens, to the Redeman family, who continued at Levens Hall till the reign of Henry VII. The Redemans were a family of considerable consequence in this county, which many of them represented in Parliament. Dr. Richard Redman was promoted by Edward IV to the See of Asaph10 in 1468, and was made Abbot of Shap in 1471. In 1495, he was promoted to the See of Exeter, and 1501 translated to that [of] Ely, but died in 1505, at Ely House, in Holborn, and was buried in the cathedral at Ely, where a sumptuous monument is raised to his memory. He left a large portion of his property to Shap Abbey. About the year 1490 Levens was sold by one of the Redmans to Alan Bellingham, of Burneshead, who purchased Fawcett Forest of the crown, and had a grant from Henry VIII in 1546, of that part of the Barony of Kendal, now called Lumley Fee. He was treasurer of Berwick and deputy Warden of the Marches. After a few generations, a descendant of his, of the same name, and the last of the family at Levens, died about the year 1690, having wasted a vast estate, and sold Levens and the rest of his property in Westmorland to Colonel James Graham, privy purse to James II, and younger son of Sir Richard Graham, of Netherby. The Colonel married Dorothy, daughter of the Earl of Berkshire, and was member of Parliament for Westmorland from 1708 to 1722. He died without male issue, and his only daughter Katherine, carried his estates in marriage to her cousin, Henry Bowes Howard, Earl of Berkshire. Henry Howard, the twelfth Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, dying without issue, bequeathed the whole of his Westmorland estates to his mother, Lady Andover, and, after her death, to his sister, Frances, whose husband, Richard Bagot, assumed the surname of Howard, and left an only daughter and heiress, the present Lady Mary Howard, of Levens, who was espoused by the Hon. Fulk Greville Upton, brother of Lord Templeton. On his marriage with this rich heiress, he relinquished the name of Upton, and assumed that of Howard. His widow, the Hon. Lady Howard, is lady of the following manors in Westmorland, viz. Levens, Milnthorp, Heversham, Clawthorp, Kendal, Chartly, Kirkland, Helsington, Crosthwaite and Lyth, Crook, Staveley with Hugill, Skelsmergh, Longsleddale, Sadgill, Fawcett Forest, High House, Wattsfield, and Gathorn.
The small manor of Nether Levens was held by the family called de Levins, who probably sold it to the Prestons of Preston, one of whose heiresses carried it in marriage to Lord Montgomery, who sold it in 1694 to Edward Wilson, Esq., of Dallam Tower, to whose descendant it still belongs.
PRESTON RICHARD is an extensive township, containing the village of Crooklands, the hamlets of Birkrigg Park, Endmoor, Milton, Low Park, and several dispersed dwellings bearing different names, and distant from two to five miles N.E. of Milnthorp, and from five and a half to six and a half miles S.E. of Kendal. It is crossed by the Kendal Canal, on which, at Crooklands, the Earl of Crawford and Belcarres, the great Wigan coal-owner, has an extensive wharf, and a range of coke ovens. The township contains 2053A. 0R. 19P., and its rateable value is £2377 17s. 4½d. The principal land-owners are John Harrison, Esq., Mrs. Maria Vincent, Thomas Atkinson, Esq., and the vicar of Heversham; but the Earl of Lonsdale is lord of the manor.
A long succession of possessors of the name of Richard de Preston owned this manor for upwards of two hundred years, and several of them were knights, but the Preston family of Holker having failed in male issue, it was sold to Sir John Lowther, from whom nearly all the tenants purchased their enfranchisement in 1679. Mr. Machel says, that the Earl of Derby is lord paramount of this as well as the adjoining manor of Preston Patrick, in Burton parish, both of which received their distinctive appellations from Richard de Preston and Patrick de Culwen. Near the old Hall, which was the ancient manor house, is a farm still called the Deer Park; there is also another park at Birkrigg, where is a place denominated the Sepulchre, being a deserted Quaker's burial ground. About a century ago, a very ancient "hammerhead of stone" was dug up at Endmoor, and in 1770 was given by the vicar of the parish to Trinity College, Cambridge.
Crooklands is three and a half miles N.E., Endmoor, four and a half miles N.E.; and Milton is three miles N.E. by E. of Milnthorp.
SEDGWICK, a small village and township three and a half miles S. of Kendal, is intersected by the canal, and bounded on the west by the river Kent. Near the village is a large Powder Mill wrought by Messrs. Wakefield and Bainbridge, the former having, in this business, lately succeeded his father, John Wakefield, Esq., of Sedgwick House, a neat mansion in this township. The mill was built about eighty years ago, and now produces about two hundred and fifty barrels of powder weekly. An explosion occasionally takes place, which may be heard at a considerable distance, but without occasioning any loss of life.
The township only contains 342A. 1R. 23P., statute measure, and the principal land-owners are W. Strickland and John Wakefield, Esqrs.
STAINTON township extends from two and a half to five miles S. by E. of Kendal, and contains the hamlets of Stainton Row, Barrows Green, part of Crosscrake, and Holm, with a number of scattered houses, bearing different names. On the Beck, which flows to the Belo, are two flax mills, a woollen mill, a corn mill, and a bobbin manufactory.
CROSSCRAKE CHAPEL, which includes within its jurisdiction the townships of Stainton and Sedgwick, occupies a central situation for the inhabitants of those places, three and a half miles S. by E. of Kendal. It is a neat edifice, rebuilt in 1773 by the help of a charity brief, and was greatly improved and enlarged in 1842, by Thomas Philipson, Esq., at a cost of £200. The original chapel was founded and endowed about the year 1190, by Anselm de Furness, son of the first Michael le Fleming, and, in the latter part of the thirteenth century, was granted by Sir William Strickland to the Priory of Cartmel. Having no provision for a curate, after the suppression of the religious houses, it was neglected and suffered to go to decay. It is described by Mr. Machel as having, in his time, "a chimney in the west corner, the lintel thereof lying about a yard from the ground, and a yard above that the funnel going out at a hole in the wall. It has," he continues, "no bell, or any salary belonging to it, or any service performed therein, but is made use of for the purposes of a school!!" a proof of the sort of zeal that actuated the reformation gentry. "Men," as Archdeacon Wilberforce observes, "gave their lands, as they declared in the deed of gift, for the glory of God, and they charged what they so gave with the maintenance of masses; if reformation had been desired this condition would have been repealed; but this would not have gorged that fatal covetousness, which, by confiscating the endowments, ran headlong into the guilt of sacrilege." The Chapel remained in this deplorable state till 1757, when Bishop Keene, Dr. Stratford, and the curate subscribed £200 to obtain £200 more from Queen Anne's Bounty. With these sums two estates were purchased, one at Dillicar, and the other at Killington. It was augmented, in 1763, with £400 more obtained from Queen Anne's Bounty, which sum was laid out in land at Sebergham, and a yearly rent-charge of 25s. in Garsdale, so that the curacy is now worth about £87 per annum. The vicar of Heversham is the patron, and the Rev. John Wallas, M.A., is the incumbent.
The school, which is near the chapel, was rebuilt by subscription in 1828. It is endowed with the interest of £100 given for that purpose by Mr. Joseph Threlfall, during his lifetime, who also bequeathed to it another £100 provided that his niece, the late Mrs. Briggs, should die without issue, which being the case, the bequest was paid to the trustee, Mr. Abraham Banks, of Liverpool, but in consequence of attorney's expences, &c., has been reduced to £76.
In 1774 John and Jane Gilpin bequeathed 11s.
yearly to the poor of Stainton, not paupers. The trustees of this charity are the
Mannix & Co., History, Topography and Directory of Westmorland, 1851
1. Now Cartmel.
2. Now Milnthorpe.
3. Now Bela.
4. St. Peter, according to Pevsner.
5. In Wales.
6. Leek is in Staffordshire.
7. Surely a misprint for "port".
8. I can't find Beathwaite Green on the map; almost certainly, the village of Levens, which isn't mentioned in the directory, but is on the map, is the same place.
Added February 2004 - Jay Wright has seen a map in Kendal Library (dated 1858) which shows Beathwaite Green as consisting of two small settlements within the bounds of the present village of Levens. On this map Levens is shown as an area around Whitbarrow Scar a few miles to the west. One mystery replaced by another - when and how did Beathwaite Green become Levens?
9. This doesn't appear on modern maps, and gets no mention in Pevsner.
10. St. Asaph is in Wales.
19 June 2015
© Steve Bulman