|This parish covers an area of about nine square miles,
and contains the five townships of Great Clifton, Little Clifton, Stainburn, Winscales,
and Workington; the two former are included in the newly-formed Derwent Division. It is
bounded on the W. by the Irish sea, on the S. by Harrington, on the E. by the river Maron1, which separates it from the parishes of Dean and Brigham, and
on the N. by the Derwent, which divides it from the parish of Cammerton. A tract of light,
sandy land, extends along the coast, but towards the east, the soil in some places
consists of a fertile loam, and in others it is inclined to moss. The township of
Workington contains 2891 acres of land, and its rateable value is £12,800, viz., land,
£4000, dwelling houses, £6400, and other property, woodlands, quarries, &c. £2400.
The principal proprietor of the soil is Henry Curwen, Esq., the lord of the manor. Good
durable white freestone and limestone is quarried here, but its principal mineral is coal,
which it produces in great abundance.
Workington is a considerable market town and sea port at the mouth of the Derwent; 5 miles S.S.W. of Maryport, 7 miles N. by E. of Whitehaven, 8 miles W. by S. of Cockermouth, 34 miles S.W. of Carlisle, and 303 miles N.N.W. of London. The town extends above a mile along the south bank of the Derwent, and, though straggling and irregularly built, contains several good shops, spacious streets, and handsome dwellings. Hutchinson says it was anciently "the chief haven of the county of Cumberland," but that, about the year 1590, "when England commanded the seas, all the vessels Cumberland could put to sea amounted only to ten in number, and their mariners to 198." It was anciently spelt Wyrekinton, Wyrkenton, and Wyrkington, and Leland, who was chaplain to Henry VIII, speaks of it as a place "whereas shyppes cum to, wher ys a litle fyssher town, cawled Wyrkenton, and ther is the chef howse of Sir Thomas Curwyn." About the year 1770, there were 97 vessels belonging to this port; some of which were 250 tons burthen. About the year 1790, the number was 160, averaging about 130 tons. In 1810, 134 ships, tonnage 18,941; in 1822, 117 ships, tonnage 18,094; in 1828, 126 ships, tonnage 19,930; in 1840, 217 ships, tonnage 36,800; and the number registered in 1846 was about 80, and their aggregate burthen was about 12,000 tons. Like Whitehaven and the other ports on this coast, the principal export trade is conveying coal to Ireland and lime to Scotland, but some of the vessels trade to America and the Baltic. The imports consist chiefly of timber, with some hemp, &c. For five years previous to 1813, the average annual exports from the Workington collieries, belonging to Mr. Curwen, was about 28,000 waggon loads. "About the year 1816, Mr. Curwen had only four pits in working, in which about 400 persons were employed. Ten years later, 200,000 tons were annually shipped from the collieries of Mr. Curwen, Mr. John Fletcher, and Mr. Thomas Westray. In 1837, there were 15,734 waggon loads (each containing 48 cwt2.) shipped at Workington, from the coal mines of Henry Curwen, Esq." The harbour is extremely safe, "the vessels lying secure from the winds of every quarter," and the river is navigable for ships of 400 tons burthen. Hutchinson says, "the harbour is esteemed one of the safest upon this coast." Although the Quays have been greatly improved and enlarged during the last sixty years, they are still susceptible of further improvements. The Merchants' Quay and the South Quay are built on the opposite sides of a wide branch of the Derwent, called South Gut, which, with the Mill Race, separates the town from the large meadow or common, called Cloffolk, about 1800 yards long and 200 broad.
The depth of water at spring tides is from 15 to 18 feet, and at neap tides from 8 to 10 feet. Vessels can sail into the harbour with a southerly, westerly, and N.N.E. winds. The harbour dues from any part of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Isle of Man, are 5d. per ton; from any other ports in Europe, 9d. per ton; from any port in Asia, Africa, or America, Newfoundland, Greenland, &c. 1s. per ton; and from South America, the Pacific ocean, &c. 1s. 6d. per ton. The anchorage dues above 30 tons are 4s., and under 30 tons, 2s. each vessel; but vessels entering by stress of weather, and departing without discharging, &c., are exempt from the harbour dues. Pilot dues for the harbour boat - on vessels from foreign, 10s. 6d. inwards, and on vessels for foreign countries, 5s. each. The Custom House officers are:- William Hodgson, collector; Mr. Upward, comptroller; and William Sawers and John Matthews, tide surveyors.
When there are eight feet of water, a red flag is shown from the eminence called by mariners How Michael; and, at night, the large gas lantern on St. John's pier shows a brilliant white light, while there are eight feet of water in the harbour, and may be seen, in clear weather, three leagues seaward. On each of the inner piers are two smaller lights, to guide ships into the harbour. On coming into the harbour, all the lights are to be kept on the starboard hand. The two large buoys on the north side of the channel are to be kept on the larboard hand, and will lead you to the "Seven Perches," which must also be kept on the same hand; and the two large buoys outside St. John's pier, on the south side of the channel, you must keep on the starboard hand as also three others on the same side. The best water is half way between the Perches and these buoys. When the wind is S.S.W., it is recommended to have good canvass, particularly on the gib, and to keep as close to the south buoys as can conveniently be done for water. Should the wind be N.E , lay the ship to the north and bear down under smart canvass for the white buoy, keeping it on the larboard side until brought close upon the ship's quarter, then buff up quickly for the Perches, keeping them a ship's breadth wide on the larboard hand. The tides here are very much ruled by the winds, but, from general observations made, there can be no better guide than allowing about one foot less water in the river, than is laid down on the tide table.
Here are two ship-building yards, and such other manufactories as are common to similar ports; and, about 23 years ago, Mr. John Guy established a patent leghorn3 hat manufactory here, by which he accumulated an independency, and, in 1843, erected a neat Gothic residence, called Tuscan Villa, in Finkle-street. His son, J. Harrison Guy, now carries on an extensive business in manufacturing, straw and tuscan hats, &c; and, about six years since, Mr. Joseph Walker commenced the growth and manufacture of tuscan straw, and is perhaps the only person at present in England engaged in this branch.
On the Derwent is a considerable salmon fishery belonging to the earl of Lonsdale, but Henry Curwen, Esq. has the draught at the mouth of the harbour, and to the Merchants' Quay. Mr. Thomas Denton, who wrote about the year 1688, says "the famous salmon fishing here (mentioned by Camden) is worth £300 per annum; three hundred of those great fishes having been frequently taken at a draught." The fish have not been plentiful here of late years, and the fishery is not worth more than one third of what it was formerly. About the year 1722, the coal pits were described as "from 40 to 50 fathoms in depth, having generally two or three workable bands; - the first, three feet; the second, four feet; and the third, from ten to eleven feet. The roofs of the two former vary; that of the main coal is of the finest white freestone, generally twenty yards in thickness." About the same time, eight or nine of Bolton and Watt's powerful steam engines were erected in the vicinity of the town, for the purpose of winding the coal and pumping water from the mines; and the number of persons employed was about 600. There are now only three pits in the Workington colliery; viz., Buddle pit, Jane pit, and Jackson pit. The Buddle pit is 43 fathoms deep, and is working the main seam 10 feet thick, and the Hamilton seam 5ft. 10in, thick; which is divided by a metal 18 inches thick, and lies 69 fathoms below the main seam. Jane pit is 70 fathoms deep, and is now working two seams of coal; the yard band 33 inches thick and 50 fathoms deep, and the Hamilton seam 5ft. 10in. thick, divided by a metal of 19 inches, and lying 20 fathoms below the yard band. A very powerful blower of inflammable air was got in sinking this pit, at the depth of 65 fathoms. It is now conducted to the surface with pipes, and has been burning most brilliantly for upwards of two years, illuminating both the pit top and engine house. The chimneys of the engine house are built in the castellated style, and have a most pleasing effect on passing them by railway. The Jackson pit is 23 fathoms deep to the main band, and 10 feet thick. A considerable feed of water, of not less than 450 gallons per minute, had to be contended with in sinking this pit. The annual output of these coal pits is from 8 to 9000 waggons, of 50 cwt. each, and the selling price, put on board of vessels, is 21s. per waggon.
Chapel Bank Colliery4, which consisted of three mines, was lost in 1837, owing to an irruption of the sea, by which 27 men and boys were drowned; nor could their bodies be recovered. Also, twenty-eight horses were lost, with the entire of all the materials belonging to this extensive colliery, which had been in operation for upwards of half a century. The Isabella was a large engine pit, 135 fathoms deep to the main band stone drift; the Lady pit 89 fathoms, and Unicorn 62 fathoms to the main band, which was 10 feet thick; and the coal workings extended upwards of three miles under the sea. The regular feed of water of these great works, two days before the accident happened, was 816 gallons per minute, and the output of the colliery for 1836 was 33,000 waggons, of 48 cwt. each. Mr. Ralph Coxon, from Newcastle, was manager at the time of the disaster, and the loss to Mr. Curwen was immense.
According to Mr. Denton, the bridge over the Derwent was rebuilt by the county in 1650. It was replaced in 1763 by one of three narrow arches, so exceedingly dangerous, that another was built in 1840, a few yards below the site of the former. The present is a noble structure of three elliptic arches, erected by Mr. Thomas Nelson, of Carlisle. About a mile S.W. of the town is an ancient roofless building, known as the old chapel, or the How Michael, already mentioned. This probably has been the chantry chapel (with some land) which was granted by queen Elizabeth to Percival Gunson and John Soukey, and described as "three acres of land called Chapel Flatt, &c." The building, which forms a prominent object along the coast, is still useful as a land mark to mariners; and there is a tradition that it was formerly surrounded by the sea.
Workington Hall, the seat of Henry Curwen, Esq., is a large quadrangular building, with battlemented parapets, situated on a woody acclivity overlooking the Derwent, near the edge of the park, and at the east end of the town. It was almost entirely rebuilt by John Christian Curwen, Esq., father of the present proprietor, from designs by Mr. Carr, of York; when the grounds were planned and improved by Mr. White, of Redford. The principal entrance is on the S.W. front, where a gateway opens into a court yard, and over the entrance door is a shield bearing the arms of Curwen, with quarterings, and the date 1665. The old mansion was castellated pursuant to the royal licence granted by Richard II, in 1379, to Sir Gilbert de Culwen. Mr. Denton, who wrote about the year 1676, says "I do not know any seat in all Britain so commodiously situated for beauty, plenty, and pleasure as this is;" and Mr. Sandford, who wrote about the same time, remarks, "And a very fair mansion-house and pallace like; a court of above 60 yards long and 40 yards broad, built round about; garretted turret-wise, and toores (towers) in the corner; a gate house, and most wainscot and gallery roomes; and the brave prospect of seas and ships almost to the house, the tides flowing up. Brave Orchards, gardens, dove coats, and woods and grounds in the bank about, and brave corn fields and meadows below, as like as Chelsay fields." The persecuted Mary Queen of Scots5 landed near the hall on Sunday, May 16tb, 1568, and was hospitably entertained here by Sir Henry Curwen till she removed to Cockermouth, on her route to Carlisle; the chamber in which she slept at this hall is still called the Queen's chamber. Pennant says:- "Here the imprudent Mary Stuart landed, after her flight from Dundrannon, in Gallowae, credulously trusting to the protection of the insidious Elizabeth." On the following day she wrote a long and respectful letter in French to queen Elizabeth, in which she complains of the ill treatment she received from some of her subjects whom she had raised to dignity and power. "You know," said she, "how they purposed to seize me and the late king, my husband, from which attempt it pleased God to protect us and to permit us to expel them from the country, where, at your request, I again, afterwards received them; though, on their return, they committed another crime, that of holding me a prisoner, and killing, in my presence, a servant of mine, I being at the time in a state of pregnancy. It again pleased God that I should save myself from their hands; and, as above said, I not only pardoned them, but even received them into favor." She goes on at considerable length, describing their cruelties to her, and concludes by imploring the assistance and protection of Elizabeth, to whom she presents her "humble commendations."
Curwen Family - "The ancient and knightly family of the Curwens," says Camden, "derive their descent from Gospatrick, earl of Northumberland, and took their surname by agreement from Culwen, a family of Galloway, whose heir they married. They have here a noble mansion like a castle, and from them, if I may be allowed to mention it without the imputation of vanity, I derive my descent by the mother's side." It is said, that, by a corruption, which first appeared in the public records in the reign of king Henry VI, the family name was changed to Curwen; that Culwen, which is on the sea coast in Galloway, had its name from a neighbouring rock, which was thought to resemble a white monk - that being the meaning of the word in the Irish language." It was given by Thomas to Patrick, his son, who, upon the death of his elder brother, Thomas, succeeded to his father's estates in England, and seated himself at Workington." This ancient family can trace their descent to Ivo de Talebois, who came to England with the Conqueror, and was the first lord of the barony of Kendal, brother of Fulk, earl of Anjou and king of Jerusalem. Ketel, grandson of Ivo, had two sons;- Gilbert, father of William de Lancaster from whom descended, in a direct line, the barons of Kendal; and Orme, from whom descended the Curwens. William, having received from William de Meschines a grant of Workington, Salter Kelton, and Stockhow, gave the parish church of the former place, with two carucates of land and a mill there, to St. Mary's Abbey, York. Orme espoused Gunilda, sister of Waldieve, first lord of Allerdale, and, having received in marriage with her the manor of Seaton, took up his abode there. He also, by the same conveyance, had the towns of Cammerton, Greysouthern, and Flimby. Gospatric, his son, received from Alan, second lord of Allerdale, High Ireby, which continued with a younger branch of the Curwens, till it terminated in heiresses. Gospatric received the manors of Workington and Lamplugh from William de Lancaster, in exchange for Middleton, in Westmorland. He gave two parts of the fishing in Derwent, with Flimby, to the abbey of Holm Cultram; and to the priory of Carlisle be gave Waytcroft. He was succeeded by his son Thomas, who received a grant of the lordship of Culwen in Galloway and who granted Lamplugh to Robert de Lamplugh, to be holden by the yearly presentation of a pair of gilt spurs. He died in 1152, and was buried in the abbey of Shap, to which he had been a benefactor. All his estates descended to his second son, Patric de Culwen, who removed his residence from Seaton to Workington, where his descendants have since remained, though the name, as has been seen, was changed in the 6th of Henry VI to Curwen. Sir Thomas Curwen died in the 34th of Henry VIII; in which year, on an inquisition of knights' fees, it is stated that he held the manor of Workington of the king, by the service of one knight's fee, 45s. 3d. cornage, 4s. seawake, and puture of two sergeants. He also held the manors of Thornthwaite, Seaton, and Cammerton, with one-third of the manor of Bootle, and divers other tenements at Gilcrux, Great Broughton, and Dearham. Henry Curwen, Esq., who died in 1790, left an only daughter and heiress, Isabella, from whom the family estates passed to her husband, John Christian, Esq., who assumed the surname and arms of Curwen by virtue of the king's sign manual, dated March 1st, 1790. The Christians trace their genealogy from William M'Christen, who lived at the Isle of Man, in 1422, where many of their ancestors were demsters or judges. They held the Miltown estates, together with Unerigg, in Cumberland, both of which now belong to Henry Curwen, Esq. Nearly all the Curwens have been members of Parliament, in which honour John Christian Curwen died in 1828. He was succeeded in his own estates by his eldest son, John Christian, Esq., and in those of the Curwens by his second son, Henry Curwen, Esq., who was born 5th December, 1783, and is now in the commission of the peace for the county of Cumberland.
The Parish Church of Workington, dedicated in honour of St. Michael6, is a handsome structure, rebuilt in 1770, and situated in a large cemetery at the west end of the town. It consists of a nave, with a low square tower, which formed part of the old fabric, and is lighted by two rows of round headed windows. Over a recess, which contains the altar table, is a window of three lights, having the top filled with stained glass; on the north side is a painting of Christ taking down from the Cross, and on the south, another, is representing the Ascension. The effigies of a knight and his lady recline on an altar-tomb under the tower, near to which is part of an ancient octagonal stone font. On the east wall is an elaborate monument of white marble, by Dunbar, to the memory of the Rev. Edw. Stanley, with two figures representing Faith and Justice. There are several other well-executed monuments in this church, with appropriate inscriptions. The tower contains two bells, one of which bears the date 1775.
The benefice is a rectory, and is the richest in the county. It was given by Ketel, son of Eldred, son of Ivo, with two carucates of land and a mill at Workington, to the abbey of St. Mary, York, and it continues to pay a pension of £2 15s. 4d. to St. Bees, and 13s. 4d. to the queen for a chantry. After the dissolution of the religious houses, Henry VIII, in the 36th year of his reign (1544) granted the advowson to Robert Brockelsby and John Dyer, who sold it to Thomas Dalston, Esq. In 1564, John Dalston, Esq., his descendant, conveyed the advowson and right of patronage of the churches of Workington and Harrington, parcel of the late monastery of St. Mary, York, to Henry Curwen, Esq., with whose descendants they have since continued. The living is valued in the king's books at £23 5s., but was certified to the commissioners respecting ecclesiastical revenues, as of the net annual value of £966. Henry Curwen, Esq. is patron, and the Rev. Henry Curwen, his son, is the incumbent.
Saint John's Church, in Washington-street, was erected in 1823, by the commissioners for building churches, at the cost of £10,000, and is calculated to accommodate 1600 hearers. It has a beautiful portico supported by massive pillars. All the seats on the ground floor are free, and the minister is paid by the rents of those on the galleries. In 1835, the parish of Workington was ecclesiastically divided into two districts, one being assigned to the mother church, and the other to St. John's. The living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the rector of the parish, and incumbency of the Revd. William Jackson. Jefferson says, "its miserable masonry and unecclesiastical style of architecture afford a sad contrast to those appropriate edifices which the more correct taste of our ancestors erected for divine worship." It has a Doric portico, not dissimilar to that of Saint Paul's, London.
Chapels - The Catholic Chapel, near the Guards, was built in 1814, on land given by the late John Curwen, Esq., subject to a ground rent of £5 a year.* It is beautifully fitted up, and will seat about 500 hearers. The Rev. Cuthbert Clifton is the present pastor. Attached to it is a school.
The Wesleyan Chapel, in Finkle-street, is a large building erected in 1840, at a cost of nearly £2000, and will hold 1000 persons. Their old chapel, in Brow top, is now used as a Sunday School.
The Independent Chapel, also in Finkle-street, is under the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Harris.
The Presbyterians have a chapel in the Pot Market, and the Primitive Methodists have one in John-street.
Charity Schools - The National School, in Portland-square, was established in 1808, by J. C. Curwen, Esq., and now affords instruction to about 200 boys and nearly 100 girls, for the small charge of 1d. or 1½d. each, per week; the family of the founder continuing to pay all necessary expenses.
The School of Industry, in Guard-street, which was established in 1816, by the benevolent ladies of the town, has for its object the inculcation of habits of industry in young females, so as to make them "notable housekeepers and good christians." It now affords gratuitous education to several poor girls, and is supported by subscription. The building also contains a room for an Infant School, and was erected in 1831, by Thomas Wilson, Esqr., of Workington. There is another Infant School at Bell-street.
Charities - In 1816, Jane Scott bequeathed £800 Stock, 5 per cent., to four trustees for 16 poor women of the township of Workington. In 1664, Sir Patricuis Curwen left to the poor of this place an annual rent charge of £9 10s., but it has been lost, together with seventy acres of land, worth £140 a year, which Thos. Curwen devised for the endowment of a school here, but which was afterwards proved to be part of his entailed estate.
In 1826, Robert Jackson left the interest of £800 to be distributed annually by the rector and three other trustees, to sixteen poor widows, The funds of this charity have been greatly diminished, first in 1830, by the conversion of the new 4 per cent. into 3½ per cent. Stock, and again, by a decree in chancery, which reduced the bequest to £430 3s. Stock. The income has been still further diminished by the reduction of the 3½ per cent. Stock into 3¼ per cent. till 1844, and then the new 3 per cents. not redeemable till 1874.
The Dispensary, in Christian-street, which was established here in 1828, affords medical and surgical assistance to the sick and infirm poor of the town and neighbourhood. It has fifty guineas a year as the interest of £1750, 3 per cent. reduced annuities, left by John Sherwen, late of Enfield, in the county of Middlesex. The rector and churchwardens of Workington are the trustees. In addition to these foundations, here are a clothing and other charitable institutions, supported by voluntary contributions; and attached to the churches and most of the chapels, are well attended Sunday Schools.
A Parochial Library is kept at the Infant School, Guard-street; a small Lending Library at the Methodist chapel, and a News Room, in Portland, square. In 1847, a Mechanics' Institute was established in the town, and occupies a room in the Savings' Bank. The Theatre is in Christian-street, but is now seldom visited by a company of comedians. The Assembly Rooms, where public meetings are generally held, is in Portland-square.
Petty Sessions are held in the Public Office, in Christian-street, every Wednesday, and the sitting magistrates are W. L. Dickinson, Esq., Revd. Henry Curwen, and Edward Stanley Curwen, Esq. Mr. Geo. Armstrong, solicitor, is their clerk.
Provident Institutions - The Savings' Bank was established here in 1827, and now occupies a handsome building in Pow-street, erected in 1844. The amount of deposits for the year ending March, 1846, was £22,869. 4s. 4d., belonging to 703 depositors. Charles Brown, Esq., is treasurer, and Mr. Henry Bowes, is secretary. It is open every Saturday evening, from seven to eight o'clock.
Markets are held here on Wednesday and Saturday, and the former is well supplied with corn, and all kinds of provisions. The market was removed to Portland-square, in 1828, near to which is a commodious shambles and slaughter house. Fairs are held here on the Wednesday before Holy Thursday and 18th of October.
The Gas Works, in the Ropery, were established in 1840, by a company of subscribers, who, in 1847, sold them to the town trustees. They were built by Mr. James Malam, of Hull, and contain eight retorts, a patent purifier and washer, and a gasometer, capable of holding 12,000 cubic feet of gas. The town is lighted by 122 public lamps, and the gas is sold to the consumers at 7s. 6d. per 1000 cubic feet, and were the price still lower, the consumption would doubtless increase.
WORKINGTON PARISH - OUT TOWNSHIPS
Great Clifton, or Kirk Clifton township, contains a pleasant village on the south side of the river Derwent, 2½ miles east of Workington, and 5½ miles west of Cockermouth. It is said that a market was formerly held here, and to corroborate this tradition, the remains of an ancient cross are still pointed out. Both this and the adjoining township of Little Clifton are now in the Derwent Division, and form one chapelry and manor, of which the earl of Lonsdale is lord, but the land is freehold, except a small portion, which is held by customary tenure, subject to fines. The township contains 850 acres, rated at £1000, and the largest proprietor is Ricd. Watts, Esq., but W. L. Dickinson, Esq., of Workington, and Messrs. Jph. Sanderson, of Cockermouth, John Sparks, of Liverpool, and H. Borradaile, have estates here. In 1831, it contained a population of 288, and in 1841, 378 souls.
Clifton House, the seat of Rd. Watts, Esq., is a large mansion occupying a delightful and elevated situation, two miles E. of Workington, overlooking the picturesque vale of the Derwent, and commanding beautiful and extensive prospects, both by sea and land. It was erected about the year 1824, by its present proprietor, and its extensive plantations are now in a luxuriant state. In the garden are a stove, vinery, pinery, and frames, &c.
The manor of Great and Little Clifton passed from Wm. de Meschines to Waldieve, son of Gospatric, and afterwards to the Lucys, Eaglesfields, Berdseys, and Salkelds, the latter of whom sold it to Sir James Lowther, Bart., from whom it descended to its present possessor. The Chapel, which occupies a very picturesque situation in the township of Little Clifton, is an ancient edifice, but has been much modernized by frequent repairs. The living is a perpetual curacy, worth about £100 per annum, arising from £800 obtained from queen Anne's bounty, in 1733, 1752, 1775, and 1793, with which 22 acres of land, were purchased in Kennyside, in 1760, and 12A. 0R. 20P. in Great Clifton. In addition to these, there was a parliamentary grant of £1000 obtained in 1819, and £25 a year from the ecclesiastical commissioners, in 1843. It is in the patronage of the rector of Workington, and incumbency of the Rev. Anthony Dalzell. Marriages were solemnized here in the 16th, and in the early part of the 17th century, since which time they were discontinued, till 1831, when the privilege was resumed. At the enclosure of the commons, in 1814, there were about 300 acres of land allotted in lieu of the tithes. The Wesleyans have a small chapel in the village.
Little Clifton township has also an ancient village, on an eminence near the junction of the Maron, and the small rivulet called the Lostridge7 3½ miles E. of Workington, and 4½ West of Cockermouth. It contains 1024A. of the rateable value of £1013, mostly the property of the Rev. H Curwen, the Messrs. Dickinson, Joseph Sanderson, Richard Watts, Esqr. Clifton House, J. and W. Thompson, and Joseph Harris, Esq. Here is a colliery belonging to the earl of Lonsdale, and at Bridge foot, or Underfoot hamlet, is a corn mill and an edge tool and sickle manufactory. Pop., 281.
Crossbarrow hamlet is partly in this, and partly in Great Clifton township.
Stainburn, said to have derived its name from Stoneyburn, is a small village on the Cockermouth road, one mile E. from Workington. Its township contains 1149 acres, rated at £1041 5s. 6d., about one half of which is the property of the earl of Lonsdale, who is lord of the manor. The other principal land owners are John Harrison, Esq. of Stainburn House, and Thos. Falcon, Esq. of Brierydale, two good residences in the village.
According to Hutchinson, the prior of Saint Bees had a small chapel, or oratory here, Waldeof having given three carucates to the abbey of Saint Mary, at York, for that purpose. Nicholson and Burn say that Henry IV interfered in a chaplain, but on due remonstrance from Saint Bees, he disclaimed the right of the crown, and revoked his grant.
Winscales township contains the small hamlet of Midtown, two miles S.E. of Workington, several scattered farmhouses, and 920A. of strong clay soil, greatly improved by draining, of the rateable value of £844 3s. 6d. H. Curwen, Esq. owns about half the township, and is lord of the manor, and the other principal proprietors are Jph. Thompson, and John Harrison, Esqrs.; but the only resident yeoman is Mr. Jph. Williamson. The rector of Workington has 29A. here, allotted at the enclosure in lieu of tithes.
* This sum is regularly tendered to Mr. Curwen, but never accepted.
Mannix & Whellan, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Cumberland, 1847
1. Maron is now Marron.
2. cwt. is the abbreviation for "hundredweight", of which there are 20 to the ton.
3. Leghorn hats were made of straw.
4. There is no longer any deep coal mining in Cumbria, although some open-cast extraction still takes place.
5. More of the story of Mary Queen of Scots can be found in the Ancient History of Carlisle.
6. The church of St. Michael was rebuilt in the 1880's following a fire.
7. The Lostridge rivulet is now referred to as the Lostrigg Beck.
For the 'sport' of "Uppies and Downies", see Sports and Festivities.
30 April 2008
© Steve Bulman